Installing the turbines in front of tetrapod wave breakers and sea walls around 1% of the mainland’s coast could generate 10GW of energy, claimed Shintake – equivalent to 10 nuclear power stations.
The turbines are built to withstand forces from strong waves and extreme weather such as typhoons, Shintake said. The blades are inspired by dolphins’ fins, and are designed to bend and release stress rather than stay rigid and risk breaking. The shaft is also flexible, inspired by flower stems which bend in the wind.
Japan’s abundant coastline, and features such as the Kuroshio ocean current from Taiwan, make sea power a viable alternative to wind and solar, said Shintake. “I’m imagining the planet two hundred years later,” he said. “I hope these turbines will be working hard, quietly and nicely, on each beach on which they have been installed.”
Placing the 0.7m diameter turbines in front of tetrapod and sea walls could also further protect the coast from the ocean’s destructive force, Shintake claimed.
NASA’s Cassini mission has made its “death plunge” into the swirling clouds of Saturn after 20 years of exploring the planet and its moons.
It’s been amazingly successful, making headlines with groundbreaking discoveries throughout its journey. But today the headlines are more like obituary notices, looking back at the mission’s spectacular achievements.
Cassini discovered new moons around Saturn, found evidence for an ocean below the surface of the moon Enceladus and even managed to land a probe on the satellite Titan (the Huygens probe). It also observed unusual features in the rings of the planet and recorded an enormous, hurricane-like storm whirling around its north pole. Surely, we must now know everything about Saturn and its moons?
Fortunately, scientists are never satisfied, and the answer to one question usually leads to at least three new questions. The discoveries from Cassini and Huygens have resulted in a whole series of issues that require further investigation. Two of the main targets for future exploration are Titan and Enceladus.
Signs of life
Before Huygens parachuted down onto Titan’s surface in January 2005, all we knew about the moon was that it was cold (about 100K or -173.15°C) and had a thick atmosphere (mostly of nitrogen, but with traces of methane), which prevented us from seeing the surface. Huygens revealed networks of valleys and rivers cutting through hills to the shoreline of an inland sea. Subsequent observations by instruments on-board Cassini have given us a greatly expanded understanding of Titan’s landscape – with an entire gazetteer of named features, from mountains to plains and oceans to ponds.
We must now try to understand what they are, how they formed and how they change with the seasons. We need to learn about tides and ocean icebergs, to define a climate cycle and to determine the composition of the land masses – are they derived from basalt, the most common rock type in the solar system, or are they frozen ice and mud? Does Titan have a rocky core overlain directly by an icy mantle, or does it have an ocean below the surface? If so, is it made up of water?
This all matters because what we have learnt about Titan from Cassini and Huygens has confirmed that it has an active chemistry, based on methane and ammonia. We know that these substances, when irradiated by the sun, result in interesting mixes of chemicals that are precursors to amino acids and other biologically important molecules. The freezing temperature of Titan’s surface precludes anything being alive – but how far below the surface do you have to go before the environment becomes sufficiently balmy for a cryophile to be comfortable? Without a dedicated mission to Titan, we will not find out.
Cassini’s exploration of Titan was always one of the main goals of the mission, with a few larger moons also scheduled for observation. But early in the mission, it became clear that Enceladus should be a prime target too. Anomalies in data observed as the spacecraft flew past Enceladus were subsequently verified as resulting from a large plume of gas and dust venting from the surface close to the south pole.
This was further investigated by Cassini, flying past Enceladus at different altitudes – the closest of which was at 25km. The data it collected helped scientists resolve the plume into a series of vents through cracks in the surface. It became clear that, like Jupiter’s icy moon Europa, Enceladus was home to an ocean below the icy crust.
Scientists also managed to identify grains of dust, water-rich ice and gases including methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide – plus traces of other organic molecules – in the plume. This lead to to much speculation about the possibility of life in the ocean.
Like Titan, Enceladus is now recognised as one of the solar system’s most likely locations for extraterrestrial life. A recent report of hydrogen in Enceladus’ plume has given that recognition even greater prominence. That’s because hydrogen is expected to be released as a byproduct of reactions between water and rock. Scientists believe that ocean water on Enceladus collides with rock, becomes heated, reacts chemically and rises up in the ocean via “hydrothermal vents”. That happens in the Earth’s oceans, too. And here, the chemically charged water around these vents supports a rich ecology of microbes and other life forms.
A single mission?
Follow-up missions to Saturn, Titan and Enceladus have all been proposed to both the European Space Agency and NASA, but none has yet been accepted and taken forward to the planning stage.
There might be a case for combining a mission to Titan with a mission to Enceladus to investigate the opportunities for life close to Saturn. I am not sure what such a mission would look like. Certainly there should be a spacecraft orbiting Titan and Enceladus, to gather additional information prior to launching vessels to the surface of both moons. Would these vessels be “penetrators” so they could pierce the ice of Enceladus? Or should they be balloons to float down through the atmosphere of Titan? I don’t know, but a possible name for the mission could be EnTiRE – Enceladus and Titan Research and Exploration. You heard it here first…
Of course, one should not forget the “Lord of the Rings” itself. There are still many unknown aspects of the giant planet that would be worth going back to investigate, such as the composition and formation of its unusual rings. And what about that huge, hexagonal-shaped hurricane at the north pole? Is there something comparable at the south pole? How do such weather systems form – and, more to the point, given the current catastrophic hurricanes experienced recently on Earth, can we learn anything from Saturn about our own atmospheric disturbances?
Given the timescale for mission planning, alongside the time it takes to get to the Saturnian system, it will realistically be at least another 20 years before Cassini’s successor arrives. Until then, we will have to rely on the next generation of Earth-based telescopes to help us explore Saturn and its fascinating satellites.
A 40-year-old British idea could make a new nuclear-powered rocket programme from NASA “a lot better,” an engineer has said.
The American space agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center recently signed a $18.8 million contract with BWXT Nuclear Energy for a “highly efficient, high-thrust engine” concept – to potentially take future crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The design and testing project will run through 2019 subject to Congressional approval.
NASA scientists hope the rocket engine will be much more efficient than traditional chemical propellant engines. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) concept could use nuclear fission of low-enriched uranium to heat hydrogen, firing it from the exhaust to create huge amounts of thrust.
An NTP engine could have double the propulsion efficiency of the Space Shuttle’s main engine, reducing a trip to Mars from six to four months, NASA said.
However, a heavy nuclear reactor and large fuel tanks for the relatively low-density hydrogen could reduce some of the potential benefits, said aerospace engineer Mark Hempsell.
“You need to use hydrogen propellant and that means the tanks tend to be a lot heavier than they would otherwise tend to be,” said Hempsell, who is also president of the British Interplanetary Society (BIS), to Professional Engineering. “A lot of the advantages tend to disappear a little when you get down to looking at the detail.”
NASA’s claim that shorter trip times would mean less radiation exposure for astronauts and reduced weight is also flawed, Hempsell said, as radiation from the nuclear reactor would require heavy shields.
The rocket could nonetheless hit ultra-fast velocities of 12km/s if NASA and BWXT adapted a concept developed by British engineer Alan Bond, Hempsell said. While working for Rolls Royce in the 1970s, Bond proposed an engine system using the nuclear reactor to create an electrical “arcjet”. The electricity would impart more energy to the heated gas, increasing its exit speed and creating more thrust – “then you are really humming,” said Hempsell.
However, he said the Nasa concept will still have performance advantages compared to chemical propellant alternatives.
The NTP “could open up deep space for human exploration,” said NASA aerospace engineer and NTP project manager Sonny Mitchell. “As we push out into the solar system, nuclear propulsion may offer the only truly viable technology option to extend human reach to the surface of Mars and to worlds beyond.”
The arrival of what could be the cheapest ever electric car must accelerate innovation around zero-emission vehicles, experts warn
China’s launch of a fully-electric car that sells for under £5000 is being described as a “wake up call” to European car manufacturers and policy makers.
Through a Chinese subsidiary, General Motors (GM) has unveiled the Baojun E100; a vehicle the size of a Smart car with a 100-mile range.
The new car is being rolled out in China and is not expected to appear in the United Kingdom or Europe any time soon, but its launch has coincided with several major developments in the motor industry.
The much-awaited Tesla 3 model was launched recently, grabbing headlines and hundreds of thousands of buyers. Selling for around £27,000, Elon Musk’s latest offering is billed as a revolutionary step in making electric cars more affordable.
At the same time, Volvo has committed to stop making purely-petrol cars by 2019, saying it will produce only hybrid or fully-electric cars from that year on. In Britain, government has proposed new laws against petrol and diesel vehicles that it hopes will usher in a new, greener future come 2040.
Last year, the number of electric cars in the world zoomed past the 2-million mark and in Norway, a third of all new cars being sold are electric. While electronic vehicles make up less than 1% of cars on the world’s roads, some estimates suggest this will rise to around 4% in less than a decade.
GM’s Baojun E100, released by SAIC-GM, is powered by a single motor that produces 29kW and a top speed of 100km/h. The car’s lithium-ion battery recharges in 7.5 hours and the vehicle offers some nice modern luxuries, like WiFi connectivity, a touchscreen console, keyless entry and parking sensors.
The latest launch, says David Bailey of the Aston Business School in Birmingham, is part of a wider story around China’s booming electric car market and within it, the growth of cheap battery-powered vehicles.
Bailey says that half a million electric vehicles were sold in China last year, making it the biggest market in the world. The race to electrify cars, he adds, is part of a “massive effort” to improve air quality in that country.
Due to regulations (which take into account safety standards), the Baojun E100 will be difficult to import into Europe or America but, Bailey says, major change is coming. “The direction is clear. Electric cars are coming and they are coming in a very big way. There is going to be a revolution not only in electric cars but also in driverless cars.”
Yoann Le Petit, clean vehicles and mobility officer at the Brussel-based research group Transport and Environment, believes this could be the cheapest electric car ever built. The cheapest hybrid vehicle in the UK currently sells for over £10,000.
He agrees with Bailey in that the Baojun E100 is not likely to arrive in Europe for years, but says its launch is a clear sign that there is a growing demand for cheap, electric cars.
Le Petit says more investment and research is needed in Europe into zero-emissions vehicles and particularly into the batteries that power them, the cost of which can account for 40% or more of the car’s price. In this respect, he says, China has a competitive advantage.
“In Europe, you have more and more cities banning diesel engines,” he says. “If we don’t produce the batteries and the cars, the big risk we are running is (having) to import all these cheap vehicles from China. In 20 years it could be the end of the automotive industry in Europe. So for car makers and policy makers this should be a wake up call.”
A new report reveals that household energy bills could be cut by as much as 60% if homes were designed to generate, store and release their own energy, saving the average household over £600 a year.
The report is based on a concept for a new social housing development in Wales that is currently in planning. The Active Homes Neath development is the first major project with energy generation and storage built into the design of new buildings.
The houses, which are being built by Pobl Group, Wales’ largest housing association, feature solar roofs, shared battery storage, and the potential for electric vehicle charging points. A solar heat collector heats the water, and waste heat is captured and recycled.
The technology has already been implemented at a school in Swansea, which has the UK’s first energy-positive classroom. Over six months the Active Classroom, which was developed by Swansea University’s SPECIFIC Innovation & Knowledge Centre, generated more energy than it consumed.
The report, by independent energy consultant Andris Bankovskis, says that if 1 million homes like this were built across the UK it could reduce the amount of energy required at peak times by 3 gigawatts, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions be nearly 80 million tones over 40 years.
“The scale of the potential impacts is compelling, and demands that we make considered decisions about how we meet housing needs sustainably,” said Bankovskis. “It suggests that if we are prepared to take some bold decisions about the way energy is supplied and used in our homes, the rewards could be significant and lasting.”
Kevin Bygate, chief executive at SPECIFIC, called for more partnerships with industry and government to roll out renewable technology into new housing projects. “Today’s report shows that households and the country as a whole can benefit if we design our homes to be power stations,” he said. “The technology works, so what we need now is to build on our partnerships with industry and government and make it happen.”
Nina Skorupska, chief executive of the Renewable Energy Association said that efficient homes could “empower consumers”. “This new initiative is a good example of the bold innovation and big-thinking taking place in the renewable energy and clean tech industries right now,” she added.
Jenifer Baxter, head of energy and environment at IMechE, told Professional Engineeringthat the Active Homes Project was a great example of bringing housing and energy initiatives together. “As we build more new homes across the U.K., new and innovative distributed, flexible energy systems will be required that can meet the needs of different regions,” she said. “By creating local distributed energy systems that cater for domestic heat and power and transport the pressure on the centralised system can be reduced.”
According to Chris Goodall, author of The Switch, homeowners could even sell power to their neighbours, but it would require an improvement in digital technology. “What there is a need for information technology which records how much is going out of your system and where it’s being used,” he has told PE. “Advances in digitalisation are making that easier and easier – we’ll see sales and purchase systems developing. It’s a perfect use of blockchain – highly distributed ledgers. That’s what we’ll eventually end up with – millions and millions of small producers, putting into a network and getting payment and paying via some sort of distributed ledger.”
A review into energy prices and future consumption is “welcome recognition” of industry concerns amid rising costs compared to the EU, an expert has said.
The newly-announced review, led by Professor Dieter Helm, an economist at the University of Oxford, will recommend ways to keep energy prices as low as possible while ensuring the UK meets climate change targets. It will look for opportunities to cut costs in the whole electricity supply chain – generation, transmission, distribution and supply – and consider the role of new technologies like electric vehicles, robotics and artificial intelligence.
The Government said its ambition is the lowest energy costs in Europe, for both households and businesses. The review will ensure “clean, secure and affordable supplies over the coming decades”, said business and energy secretary Greg Clark.
“This is a welcome recognition by government of industry’s concerns over increasingly uncompetitive energy prices and the need to act,” said Roz Bulleid, head of climate and environment at EEF, the manufacturers’ organisation. Terry Scuoler CBE, the body’s chief executive, will sit on an advisory panel.
“I think industry has been concerned for some time that we have got diverging costs from the rest of the EU,” Bulleid said to Professional Engineering. Factories in some UK industries pay far more than in EU countries like Germany, she added, costing businesses millions of pounds.
“It is good to see the Government addressing the issue of the cost of energy in this new review,” said Dr Jenifer Baxter, head of energy and environment at IMechE. “However, the review only addresses electricity, which is approximately 20% of the whole energy system. In order to fully understand the cost implications of energy, the connections and interdependencies within the whole system of electricity, heat and transport should be considered.”
Decarbonisation programmes need “huge” investment over the next decade and beyond, said Oxford professor and previous government adviser Helm. The Government aims to cut 80% of carbon emissions by 2050, a key national target to help restrict a global temperature increase to only 2°C. New technologies could bring many benefits but must be implemented properly, said Helm.
“Digitalisation, electric transport and smart and decentralised systems offer great opportunities,” he said. “It is imperative to do all this efficiently, to minimise the burdens. Making people and companies pay excessively for policy and market inefficiencies risks undermining the objectives themselves.”
The review, which will not comment on individual energy projects, will set out options for a “long-term road map” for the power sector. “All homes and businesses rely on an affordable and secure energy supply and the government is upgrading our energy system to make it fit for the future,” said Clark. “We want to ensure we continue to find the opportunities to keep energy costs as low as possible, while meeting our climate change targets.”
A new smartphone-compatible diagnostic tool could slash the time needed for life-saving disease tests, a team of researchers has said.
Biomedical engineers at Duke University in North Carolina said their new device detects disease markers “as accurately as the most sensitive tests on the market” in a fraction of the time. The tool, called the D4 assay, spots low levels of antigens – protein markers of diseases – in a single drop of blood.
The team created the D4 by printing antibodies onto a glass slide with a non-stick polymer coating. The coating stops proteins not associated with disease from attaching to the slide, removing “background noise” from results and making the device more sensitive than it would be otherwise. When blood touches the antibodies, they dissolve and bind to target proteins and create fluorescent light to reveal how much of an antigen is present.
Users then read results using a table-top scanner or a 3D-printed smartphone attachment. The Duke team said their “lab-on-a-chip” identifies disease biomarkers in as little as 15 minutes – far quicker than the current “gold standard” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) test. Elisa detects diseases like Zika or HIV, but requires trained researchers or liquid-handling robotic devices.
“What’s cool is that our assay can achieve comparable sensitivity to the Elisa within 15 minutes, and if further sensitivity is needed, longer incubation times can be used,” said engineer Daniel Joh from Duke University. “This device can also be compared to a lateral flow test, which is quite fast as it takes less than five minutes to get a reading, but that test isn’t as sensitive. This is really the best of both worlds.”
The researchers used the D4 in clinical trials, measuring levels of serum leptin – a hormone which can reveal mortality and complications in malnourished children – in patients at Duke University Medical Center. Joh and co-author Angus Hucknall will next use their prototype in a field test in Liberia to better understand how results can monitor and help plan treatment strategies for malnutrition, and how it can perform wider diagnostics.
The device offers efficient and accessible testing which could be useful in remote or developing parts of the world, the team said. They said D4 chips will cost less than $1 and the smartphone attachment developed at the University of California will be less than $30.
“Diagnostic tools such as this have significant advantage over existing lab-based methods in that they can be used in the most extreme and isolated of areas, enabling communities who previously would have had to travel for days to a hospital to be tested in their own home or at a local clinic,” said Dr Helen Meese, head of healthcare at IMechE, to Professional Engineering. “This type of equipment means that clinicians can sample, analyse and diagnose patients more rapidly with equivalent or better results than existing techniques.”
Many more “lab-on-a-chip” devices will be developed in the coming years, she added, as they shrink from desk-sized to handheld and even plug-ins for mobile devices. However, as with other medical technology they face extensive research and clinical trials before widespread introduction.
The colour-changing skin of chameleons, octopi and squid has long been a fascination for scientists.
However, their attempts to replicate it have failed to have the desired effect. Often, the colour change is only visible to the naked eye when the material is stretched and placed under mechanical strain.
But, researchers in China have developed a new type of colour-changing electronic skin, where the shifts in hue can be seen by humans, under much lower levels of strain than in previous attempts.
A study published today in the journal 2D Materials details the work, by researchers from Tsinghua University in Beijing. They used flexible electronics made from graphene, and a stretchable organic electrochromic device to create the effect. “We found subtle strain – between zero and 10 per cent – was enough to cause an obvious colour change, and the RGB value of the colour quantified the magnitude of the applied strain,” said lead author Tingting Yang.
In other words – the more they stretched the new material, the more its colour changed. “It is important to note that the capability we found for interactive colour changes with such a small strain range has been rarely reported before,” said Yang. “This user-interactive e-skin should be promising for applications in wearable devices, robots and prosthetics in the future.”
The researchers were excited by the potential of graphene for this kind of technology. “Graphene, with its high transparency, rapid carrier transport, flexibility and large specific surface area, shows application potential for flexible electronics, including stretchable electrodes, supercapacitor, sensors, and optical devices,” said senior author Hongwei Zhu.
In an email to Professional Engineering, Zhu said the next steps could include adding more colours to the electronic skin. “The current work provides the e-skin with a reversible color changing capability for detecting strain or stress load,” he wrote. “However, the change in colour range, just between yellow and blue, is limited. Next we hope to introduce and design more electrochromic materials to enable various colour switching, thus broadening the application scope.”
Ravinder Dahiya, a reader in electronic and nanoscale engineering at the University of Glasgow who was not involved in the research told Professional Engineering that it looked like the Chinese researchers had “come up with a solution that is more sensitive than in the past.”
However, he was doubtful about the applications of such technology for wearables and prosthetics. “They say it will be useful for wearables, prosthetics and robotics. How it will be useful they have not said,” said Dahiya. “I can only see one benefit when it comes to robotics and prosthetics – the only benefit I can see – for example if you press your limb very hard it changes colour – so that could reflect the amount of force that is being applied on the limb structure.
But he said there were potential benefits in other areas in manufacturing and construction. “For example if such a layer is present on electronic wafers where electronics is being fabricated a minor change in the colour would reflect a non-planar surface. It could be used for structural health monitoring,” he said.
Zhu said that his team’s technology could be used in clothes, smart phones and smart watches. “It should be promising to be used as an interactive decoration or emotional expression,” he told PE. “Besides, it also offers a feasible scheme for camouflage and may be used in military applications, prosthetics as well as intelligent robots.”
Liverpool and Manchester Railway brought several world firsts. IMechE archivist Karyn French delves into George Stephenson’s writings
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was opened on 15 September 1830 to link the two cities. It was the first public transport system that did not use animal traction power and the first to provide a scheduled passenger service.
The initial 1823 survey for the line was carried out by William James but was considered defective and in 1824 George Stephenson was appointed engineer in his place. Stephenson was replaced too after further mistakes were made, possibly owing to the absence of his son Robert. George and John Rennie were then appointed as engineers, and they chose Charles Blacker Vignoles as surveyor.
But the crossing of Chat Moss peat bog (pictured top) saw both Rennies and Vignoles resign and brought the return of George Stephenson as engineer, with Joseph Locke as his assistant. The construction of the line itself was not the only engineering feat accomplished in order to overcome the topography and geography of the route: the crossing of Chat Moss is well known for its ingenuity but permanent civil structures were also built.
The most notable of these is the Sankey Viaduct, which is the world’s oldest major railway viaduct still in use. It was built by Stephenson and allowed the line to cross the Sankey Canal while leaving enough clearance for sailing vessels to pass below. It is 183m long, with nine round-arched spandrels on sharply-battered piers. Its arches are of 15m span and 21m high. The gradient of the viaduct had to be suitable for the locomotives. It was this that Stephenson seemed most concerned about in his reports. He commented that the nature of the supports required further consideration. He thought consideration should be given to driving piles close to the canal. He was also concerned about the piers; although these were completed in 1829 Stephenson was writing in 1832 (the viaduct was not considered complete until 1833). I cannot find any evidence that his advice was taken and his alterations made but if you know differently please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Where the viaduct solved one problem by going above, the Wapping Tunnel (pictured bottom) in Liverpool solved another by going beneath ground. It was the first tunnel in the world to be bored under a city. It is 2km long and was open from 1830 until 1972.
Originally the railway out of Liverpool was to run north along the docks but landowner opposition made this impossible. The new route required considerable engineering works in addition to the tunnel. The 1-in-48 gradient was much too steep for the locomotives of the day. So a stationary steam engine was installed at Edge Hill to haul wagons by rope up from the Park Lane goods station at the South End Docks. The goods wagons were connected to locomotives at Edge Hill for their onward journey.
At Edge Hill cutting, the tunnel can be seen flanked by another Stephenson tunnel, Crown Street Tunnel, and a later addition, a short tunnel of 1846 that allowed an increase in freight traffic. The Crown Street Tunnel was bored from a deep cutting at Edge Hill and ran to the passenger terminus station at Crown Street, the world’s first public railway station. This station was later abandoned for the more central location of Lime Street.
Edge Hill was the site of another engineering spectacle, the Moorish Arch where the railway’s opening ceremony took place and where Stephenson was required to provide a dramatic and decorative feature.